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旧帖 2014-03-04 13:38:04
Post #27
海上及湖泊河流安全-第一杀手-水温-19个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04

海上及湖泊河流安全-第一杀手-水温-19个典型案例 北美洲

Case 10

Fengquan Guan
May 9th, 2010 Milford, Connecticut
While on an annual visit with friends in Milford, Fengquan Guan, 32, of Beijing, went paddling alone on Long Island Sound in a grey, 16-foot double kayak that he had used on previous occasions. He set out at 11 a.m., wearing a black sweater, black jeans, and a Body Glove PFD, for what he thought would be a short trip along the shoreline. The water temperature was a very cold 54F, and conditions in Long Island Sound were rough, with winds gusting around 23 mph and 2-3 foot seas.
When he didn’t return within two hours, Guan’s friend called the local police and the Coast Guard was brought in to search the area. Using helicopters, falcon jets, and rescue boats, police and Coast Guard personnel initially canvassed 1,250 square miles searching for him. The search was finally called off the next day at 9 p.m. after no sign of either Guan or his kayak could be found.

One day later, however, his kayak was discovered by Southold police officers, swamped at the high tide line in Goldsmith Inlet, and the search was resumed, again without success. His body was finally recovered two weeks later when it washed ashore on Ocean Beach in Amaganset. The Body Glove PFD was found washed ashore nearby, suggesting that perhaps it wasn’t properly fastened and came off in the water.

Case Note:  
Milford, where Guan launched, lies in a crescent shaped indentation of the Connecticut coast that’s quite protected unless wind is blowing from the East or South. Although offshore conditions in Long Island Sound were quite rough, the water would have appeared fairly calm to Guan when he was standing on shore preparing to launch his kayak, because the water almost always appears deceptively calm when the wind is blowing offshore.

kurtyang04 于 2014-03-21 05:59:26 编辑
旧帖 2014-03-04 13:53:26
Post #28
海上运动安全-第一杀手-水温-17个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 第十例是个中国人,也是我知道的第一个中国人死于海洋舟事故。


那天我们在nh 州漂流为阿拉斯加训练,虽说5月,天上飘着一点雪花,空气就4度,水温也就4度,不幸的是我们一大半人落水,我也是一位,穿着两件潜水衣,还好没那么冷,但阵风6级

清华工程本科毕业生,海洋舟和漂流中国首席安全推手, 荒野皮划艇探险高级摄影师, 华人皮划艇荒野探险首席领队

旧帖 2014-03-04 14:05:44
Post #29
海上运动安全-第一杀手-水温-17个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 南边的康州要暖和些,空气和海水温度大概10/9度,阵风还是6级。



清华工程本科毕业生,海洋舟和漂流中国首席安全推手, 荒野皮划艇探险高级摄影师, 华人皮划艇荒野探险首席领队

旧帖 2014-03-21 04:53:35
Post #30
Re: 海上运动安全-第一杀手-水温-17个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 Translate from: English
关凤泉,北京, 32 每年参观米尔福德的朋友,并以前用过一个灰色的, 16英尺长的双人皮艇划独自在长岛海湾里划艇。上午11时身穿黑色毛衣,黑色牛仔裤和手套救生衣 ,打算沿海岸线行程短。长岛湾水温很冷在54F(12C) ,海况不好,约23英里的大风(六级),半米到一米的浪。
当他两个小时内没回,关的朋友打电话当地警方和海岸警卫队, 被带到搜索的区域。使用直升机,猎鹰飞机,船只和救援,警察和海岸警卫队人员开始在1,250平方英里搜寻他。晚上9点后搜索暂停, 他或皮艇的迹象无迹可寻。

一天过去了,他的皮艇被由警务人员发现,在沼泽中高潮线。 搜索得到恢复,再次无功而返。他的身体终于两个星期后冲上岸。手套PFD也被发现附近冲上岸,这表明也许没穿救生衣,它在水中脱落。

米尔福德,下船在康涅狄格州海岸的月牙形缺口,除非吹东南风, 这个相当开放的大湖, 不能算公开水域。尽管长岛湾海上条件相当不好,下水处很平静蒙骗了他,而且当天的风向在吹船离岸。
旧帖 2014-03-21 04:55:15
Post #31
Re: 海上运动安全-第一杀手-水温-17个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 案例11:

 Mark J. Tamkus
March 17th, 2011 Millsite Lake, Redwood, New York
Mark J. Tamkus, 62, of 42607 Camp Tousey Rd., in Redwood, NY, was found under his capsized kayak at 3:00 p.m. by the Jefferson County Special Tactics and Rescue team after his family had reported him missing earlier in the day.

The kayak was found floating upside down in a small area of open water in front of his lakeside home. Millsite Lake was still mostly ice-covered, and the water temperature at the time of capsize was 32F. Mr. Tamkus, who was not wearing a sprayskirt, drowned before he was even able to exit the kayak.

Following an autopsy conducted that evening at Samaritan Medical Center in nearby Watertown, Jefferson County medical examiner Dr. Samuel A. Livingstone, ruled that he died of asphyxia due to cold-water drowning.

Mr. Tamkus was a part-time veterans benefit counselor and advocate at the Veterans Affairs Community-Based Outpatient Clinic in Watertown. Millsite Lake is located in the Jefferson County town of Redwood, about 90 miles north of Syracuse, NY.
Case Note: 
This incident is an excellent example of what happens when cold shock causes a person to gasp while under water: they immediately drown, often before they’re even able to exit the kayak.
旧帖 2014-03-21 05:10:42
Post #32
Re: 海上运动安全-第一杀手-水温-17个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 第十一例

大概说, 事故发生在水温0 C , 关键点是,冷休克 。死亡时,他人还在船上,连冷退出都没来得及做。解剖医生证明呼吸能力散失导致溺水死亡。


kurtyang04 于 2014-03-21 05:58:34 编辑
旧帖 2014-03-21 05:12:11
Post #33
Re: 海上运动安全-第一杀手-水温-17个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 第12例:

 Nine U.S. Marines
March 6th, 1968, Potomac River, Quantico, Virginia
It was 4 p.m. on a Wednesday afternoon. The air temperature was in the 40’s (5-9C), and a light breeze created small ripples on the surface of the water. Nine U.S. Marines, dressed in sweatsuits and paddling a 25-foot canvas covered “war canoe” with a 4-foot beam, were nearing the end of a two-mile crossing of the Potomac River, 25 miles south of Washington, D.C., when they suddenly capsized approximately 100 yards from shore.

The Marines were all excellent swimmers, part of an elite group that had trained for two months as close-combat, physical-fitness, and water-survival instructors at the nearby Marine Corps Physical Fitness Academy. They were a tough bunch, and their group leader had taught water-survival for five years.

No one was wearing a PFD when the canoe turned over, but it was equipped with seat-cushion-type life preservers - one for every man on board. Why they capsized, and whether they attempted to right and reenter the canoe will never be known, because despite a valiant attempt to swim to safety, every single one of them drowned. The water temperature was 36 degrees (2C).
Case Note: 
No matter how strong, fit, determined or motivated you are, sudden immersion in cold water is a life-threatening event.
旧帖 2014-03-21 05:23:26
Post #34
Re: 海上运动安全-第一杀手-水温-17个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04  九名美海军陆战队溺死

这是个星期三的下午4点。空气温度是在40年代(5 -9C) ,并有微风的小波纹的水面上。九美海军陆战队,身着套头衫和划着25英尺的帆布覆盖有一个4英尺的横梁的“战争独木舟”,已接近华盛顿特区波托马克河以南41公里的一两英里穿越, 快到底时离岸边约100码,突然他们倾覆。

海军陆战队都是优秀的游泳者,这已经训练了两个月的近战,健身,和教官在附近的海军陆战队体能学院, 精英集团的一部分,接受水上生存的训练。他们是一个很强悍的一群,他们的组长曾是水上生存的五年教官。

当独木舟翻了没有人穿着PFD救生衣,但它配备了座椅坐垫式救生衣 - 每个人在船上都有一个。他们为什么倾覆,以及他们是否试图向右,很难再知道,尽管他们勇敢的游泳试图到安全地带,但他们的每一都被淹死了。水的温度为36度(2C ) 。


旧帖 2014-03-21 05:30:11
Post #35
Re: 海上湖泊河流安全-第一杀手-水温-20个典型案 ...
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 第十三个故事:

David Arthur Dickerson
April 21st, 2012 Omena Bay, Lake Michigan
Family members said that Dave Dickerson, 43, loved being out on the water and usually paddled his canoe for an hour every evening on Omena Bay, starting around 6 p.m. From all accounts he appears to have been a lovely, kind, generous, and thoughtful man who was well-respected in his community.
According to the information below, posted on the internet by his sister, Dickerson had a lot of assorted outdoor experience under his belt:

“He left a good job as the buyer for the world's largest paddling retailer to live on Omena Bay, because that's where he wanted to live”. 

“He was fueled by a passion for living. Salmon fishing in the Pacific. Ice climbing on Mount Washington. Downhill skiing black diamond slopes of Bridger Bowl in Montana. White water rafting the Galliton River in Yellowstone Park. He paddled the Gales of November in Lake Superior. His sailboat was the first on Omena Bay in spring and the last to come out”.

“He built his life around kayaking, canoeing, sailing, hiking, snowshoeing and climbing. He found grace in every weather. And he took it seriously, buying the best quality gear and the right clothes for the weather. He bought my daughter's first life preserver, her first sled and her first snorkel. He organized her first canoe trip, and her second and her third”.

On the Sand River, Ontario
Omena Bay is formed by a small indentation in the shoreline of Grand Traverse Bay, which itself is a part of northern Lake Michigan. On the final evening that he went paddling, Dickerson took his dog with him in the canoe. Although there was no wind and conditions were calm, the water temperature was a brutally cold 41F (5C).
He was expected home by 7:00 p.m., and when he didn’t return on time family members went looking for him. They couldn’t find him, and at 8:15 p.m., his sister called 911 for help and Leelanau County dispatch notified Coast Guard Sector Sault Sainte Marie, which launched an MH-65 Dolphin helicopter from Air Station Traverse City, and dispatched a 25-foot Response Boat–Small from Station Charlevoix.
MH-65 Dolphin
Within minutes of getting airborne, the helicopter crew located the overturned canoe and also spotted Dickerson, who appeared unresponsive, floating in the water about 100 feet away. Minutes later, Northport firemen and emergency medical technicians made the recovery, confirmed that he was unresponsive, and transported him to a nearby hospital, where he was pronounced dead. His dog survived and returned home soaking wet at 9:30 p.m.
Case Note:  

Dave Dickerson’s sister, Rachael North, contacted us and provided a number of important details which we’ve included in this article. In the aftermath of the tragedy, she also contacted the Coast Guard at Traverse City and worked with them to create a safety video to alert others about the danger of cold water. Watch the video here.
Rachel also shared a video of Dave - fully dressed for immersion in a drysuit, neo hood and gloves - rolling his kayak on Omena Bay the previous December, and told us that he had both a wetsuit and drysuit hanging in his closet – a piece of information that naturally raises the question of why in the world he wasn’t wearing any protection when he went out that night. Watch the video here.
Dickerson was a very competent paddler with a wealth of outdoor experience, and yet he left his cold water gear at home. How could that happen? What was he thinking? The sobering answer is that a person can easily make this kind of bad decision without even thinking about it.
In November, 2011, I wrote a safety article for Sea Kayaker magazine analyzing a very similar incident in which another competent and experienced paddler, someone who also knew better than to leave his wetsuit in the closet, went paddling solo on the freezing Mississippi River and came within a whisker of dying.
We have four documents on our site that relate to these seemingly inexplicable lapses in judgment, and while no one will ever really know what Dave Dickerson was thinking, I believe this information can help us to better understand his tragedy.

Cold and Alone on an Icy River
Randy Morgart’s gripping personal account of his near-death experienced on the Mississippi appeared in the August 2010 issue of Sea Kayaker.
Short Video Demonstrating the Power of Moving Ice
This video, taken by Randy Morgart shortly before he capsized, shows sheets of ¼ inch ice moving slowly along with the Mississippi River flow. It’s a pretty, tranquil scene – until you see that ice knocking a large steel buoy all over the place.
Anatomy of a Bad Decision
This article explores the age-old tug of war between reason and emotion, and sheds light on the question of how an experienced paddler could decide to leave his wetsuit at home and go kayaking on freezing water.
Short Analysis of Randy Morgart
This article is a closer look at Randy Morgart’s experience with both cold shock and incapacitation. Also discussed is his clothing, his successful self-rescue, and his inability to think clearly throughout the entire incident.
旧帖 2014-03-21 05:49:40
Post #36
Re: 海上湖泊河流安全-第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 第十三个故事

看上去很长,其实更多是教育内容,懂英文者可以打开好多链接, 更多的内容。

这个出事是五大湖,5C的水温, 出事没风没浪。 翻船后,人挂了,但狗幸存下来。在自然生存面前,也许人不如狗。


水上户外安全大局来不得任何马虎,过度的自信害人害已, 在大自然面前一定要谦卑。 这个事件只要穿了潜水衣,无论其他错,命是可以保住地。
旧帖 2014-03-22 13:48:00
Post #37
Re: 海上湖泊河流安全-第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例 北美洲
索可齐 离线 索可齐 一定要谦卑
旧帖 2014-03-31 06:49:32
Post #38
海上湖泊河流安全-第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例 北美洲
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 今年各大划艇俱乐部纷纷选择三月作为首划日子,好不热闹。从北国的北京到南国的广西,纷纷下水。除了花式艇比较重视保温外,其他活动基本没准备失温的后果。是的,也许出事概率不大,但出人命可能性还是有的,特别是意想不到的翻船后果,尤其是新人。15-20度的水浸泡3钟头也会出人命。希望各地方领队,至少春天的活动保守些。北半球最高水温在8月初,3月底水温度与11月下12月初接近,你懂得。
kurtyang04 于 2014-04-06 05:06:50 编辑

清华工程本科毕业生,海洋舟和漂流中国首席安全推手, 荒野皮划艇探险高级摄影师, 华人皮划艇荒野探险首席领队

旧帖 2014-04-08 10:43:14
Post #39
皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 发现这个问题在静水艇友里相当严重,最有效的方法是潜水服(短袖连体也成)。要点:潜水服要紧贴身。

2/3mm 延长人的生命2-5 倍,静水和海水出事道理类似简单:


清华工程本科毕业生,海洋舟和漂流中国首席安全推手, 荒野皮划艇探险高级摄影师, 华人皮划艇荒野探险首席领队

旧帖 2014-04-08 10:59:53
Post #40
皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 北美标准规范:






清华工程本科毕业生,海洋舟和漂流中国首席安全推手, 荒野皮划艇探险高级摄影师, 华人皮划艇荒野探险首席领队

旧帖 2014-04-08 21:19:43
Post #41
Re: 皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典 ...
清江白浪 离线 清江白浪
kurtyang04 wrote:








旧帖 2014-04-16 19:38:32
Post #42
皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 其实有经验地划海洋舟,不比坐轮渡危险多少。如果我在韩国,这个季节是不能离开海岸线太远,因为水温是超级杀手,还有对机动船保持警惕,泰坦尼克号都沉了,哪有不沉的船。或者带一件潜水服,给生命更多的机会。水火无情,但知识可以带来不同的结果,无知让人陷于被动。

清华工程本科毕业生,海洋舟和漂流中国首席安全推手, 荒野皮划艇探险高级摄影师, 华人皮划艇荒野探险首席领队

旧帖 2014-05-03 03:53:22
Post #43
Re: 皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例
waterwalker 离线 waterwalker 楼主总结得好。




旧帖 2014-05-03 08:13:25
Post #44
Re:皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例
sam2008bj 离线 sam2008bj 这个季节出海需要干衣吗?潜水服好些还是划船服好些呢,都是看迪卡侬上面的。看了这些案例越发觉得需要增添保命装备。
旧帖 2014-05-03 08:37:29
Post #45
皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 广东相对好很多,夏天问题更少,广东干衣,不划白水,基本不需要。据说便宜短袖潜水衣100左右,带上是加了安全系数。

sam2008bj wrote:

清华工程本科毕业生,海洋舟和漂流中国首席安全推手, 荒野皮划艇探险高级摄影师, 华人皮划艇荒野探险首席领队

旧帖 2014-05-03 08:47:02
Post #46
皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 水哥的数据就是厉害,温度出问题的机制是让人迅速失去能量,没了能量,生命离终点不远了。


水上另一大事故根源就是别住trap(pin)各种各样的trap,防trap, 防水温, 90%的危险因素就会排除。


清华工程本科毕业生,海洋舟和漂流中国首席安全推手, 荒野皮划艇探险高级摄影师, 华人皮划艇荒野探险首席领队

旧帖 2014-05-03 14:14:19
Post #47
Re: 皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典型案例
看花 离线 看花 请注意“第一杀手”四个字。


旧帖 2014-06-11 07:07:49
Post #48
Re: 皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温-20个典 ...
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 统计资料显示:

80%以上重大事故发生在11C度以下的水温,就是说冬天出事可能是夏天出事的几十倍, 北方的可能是南方的几十倍。


Fact: A review of 6 fatal and 12 near-fatal accidents (1985) noted that all but one involved water temperatures of 50°F or less. A more recent review of 20 accidents, 19 involving immersion of 26 people in cold water noted that 10 died before they could be rescued and the remainder had varying degree of hypothermia.
旧帖 2014-06-19 23:35:11
Post #49
Re: 更新:水温事故的官司 皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手- ...
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2013/feb/05/suit-filed-in-kayaking-trip-death/

A city parks instructor manual appears to ban city-sponsored kayak trips in the kind of weather that led to a chaotic and deadly excursion organized by Gonzaga University and sponsored by the Spokane parks department, according to a lawsuit filed Monday.
Christopher Gormley, 18, died from hypothermia after his kayak tipped in the frigid waters of Rock Lake during the trip on April 1. He was one of seven people on the trip organized by Gonzaga Outdoors, which contracted with the city parks department to provide the equipment and guide for the trip. Gormley, a freshman honors student, was majoring in political science and was a recent graduate of Henry M. Jackson High School in Everett.
Among those named in the wrongful death lawsuit filed by Gormley’s mother, Susan Gormley, are the city of Spokane, Gonzaga University and Brandon LeBaron, the temporary seasonal parks employee who was the guide for the trip.
The lawsuit says a manual for Spokane Parks and Recreation Department instructors directs instructors that trips are not allowed “where the wind exceeds 13-18 mph.”
The National Weather Service had issued a wind advisory at 3:37 a.m. that day for the Palouse effective from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. The advisory warned of sustained southwest winds of 25 to 30 mph with gusts of up to 50 mph. The strongest winds were expected between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m.
The kayak group launched at about 10:30 a.m.
City spokeswoman Marlene Feist said Monday that the city had not yet received a copy of the lawsuit and that City Attorney Nancy Isserlis would not comment.
LeBaron and Gonzaga spokeswoman Mary Joan Hahn could not be reached. An officer for the Gonzaga Student Body Association, which is also named in the lawsuit, declined to comment.
LeBaron, 23, remains a temporary seasonal employee for the parks department and teaches cross-country skiing and snowshoeing classes, Feist said.
Susan Gormley filed a $5 million claim with the city in October. Seattle attorney Lee Corkrum, who is representing the Gormleys, confirmed the suit had been filed but directed questions about the suit to documents filed in Spokane County Superior Court.
Although all the participants were wearing life jackets, only LeBaron was wearing a wetsuit even though the water temperature was about 40 degrees and the air was about 35 degrees, according to the Whitman County Sheriff’s Office incident report.
The lawsuit points to recommendations from the American Canoe Association that say that a “wetsuit is a must” when paddling in water less than 60 degrees or when the air and water temperatures add up to less than 120 degrees.
Gonzaga student guides on the trip had cellphones and a Satellite Personal Tracker, a device that allows people to communicate with emergency services even when out of cellphone reach, in their possession, the lawsuit says. But the suit claims they were “inoperable or could not be used.”
“Valuable time was lost while the student guides paddled to the west shore of Rock Lake and ran up the beach to locate a landline,” the suit says.
The lawsuit says that Gonzaga officials agreed to cooperate and to explain why the satellite tracking device was not used to call for help. But that information has not been provided, according to the lawsuit.
About 30 minutes after launch, all three single-seat kayaks capsized in the rough water. Four women in two-person kayaks did not tip and paddled back to shore.
Tucker Brinkman, the first to capsize, told deputies he became concerned about the wind and paddled for shore but tipped. While LeBaron was assisting Brinkman, Gormley’s kayak also tipped. LeBaron capsized when trying to help the other kayakers.
Brinkman, who was taken to Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center where he was treated and released, told investigators that he spent about 20 minutes in the water trying to get back into their kayaks before they decided to swim to shore. LeBaron reached shore first to try to get help. But Brinkman said Gormley soon stopped swimming.
The Sheriff’s Office report shows a frightening scene: “Tucker said he asked Christopher what he was doing and said he just kept yelling for help. He told me he was yelling at Christopher to keep swimming, but he would not move. Tucker told me he tried to grab Christopher and pull him with him as he swam, but said he was not able to pull him. Tucker told me the waves were crashing over their heads while they were swimming, and said he swallowed a lot of water,” wrote Brian Keller, of the Whitman County Sheriff’s Office. “Tucker told me he decided to swim to shore to get a kayak. He told me he was to going to get a kayak and take it back out to Christopher. Tucker said when he reached the shore, he was so cold he could not move.”


该诉讼认为一本手册为斯波坎公园和休闲部门指导教官教官那车次不准“,其中风excede 13-18英里每小时。”
美国国家气象局已经在上午03点37的帕卢斯发出风咨询这天上午8时有效至下午5时谘询警告25 30哩持续的西南风与高达到50英里的阵风。预期最强烈的风势间上午11时和下午3时
警长办公室的报告显示一个可怕的场景,“塔克说克里斯托弗问我在做什么,我说我只是不停地喊救命。他告诉我,我被骂克里斯托弗保持游泳,但我不会动。塔克告诉我,我想抓他和拉克里斯托弗与他作为任我游,但说我是不是能拉他。塔克被告知我崩溃在他们头上的海浪,他们游泳时,说我已经吞下了大量的水,写道:“布赖恩·凯勒的惠特曼县警长办公室。 “塔克告诉我,我决定游到岸边来获得皮艇。他告诉我,我会得到一个皮艇,并把它背出来克里斯托弗。当他到达塔克说了岸,我是如此寒冷我动弹不得。“
kurtyang04 于 2014-06-20 00:31:10 编辑
旧帖 2014-06-19 23:52:28
Post #50
Re: 更新:水温事故的官司 皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手- ...
kurtyang04 离线 kurtyang04 这是我见到不多的事故官司:

1)北美商业GUIDE质量无法保证,至少有20%安全 不合格,包括漂流,人要砸到他们,再出现一些事故主要因素,那么危险就来了。就像韩国船难,那些船长大副们的安全素质比我们差得远呢
3)只要穿潜水衣,这个事故不可能发生,而这里只有向导穿了, 这是领队的侥幸心理,明知道有问题,嫌麻烦,就放弃原则
4)最好的防卫是自己懂得危险,为可能危险准备充分,水温的危险不仅仅在划船,还有游泳冲浪,甚至游艇和大客轮, 还有爬山。很多爬山者死在冰水中,洪水中。
旧帖 2014-06-20 12:57:53
Post #51
更新:水温事故的官司 皮划艇安全系列之一: 第一杀手-水温
wfengliu 离线 wfengliu
武武昊子 wrote:

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